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New & Emerging Concepts in Wound Care Products
Volume 8, Issue 3
1. C Moues, F Huele, R Legerstee, Houles S. Five millennia of wound care products - What is new? A review of the literature. OWM. 2009; 55(3):16-32.

2. IS Foulds, AT Barker. Human skin battery potentials and their possible role in wound healing. Br J Dermatology. 1983; 109:515-522.

3. K Robinson. The response of cells to electrical fields: A review. J Cell Biology. 1985; 101; 2023-2027.

4. Vanable JW (1989) Integumentary potentials and wound healing. In: Borgans R et al (eds) electrical fields in vertebrate repair. Alan R Liss, New York: 183.


6. Bonadio J, Smiley E, Patil P, Goldstein S. Localized. Direct plasmid gene delivery in vivo: Prolonged therapy results in reproducible tissue regeneration. Nat Med. 1999; 5(7):753-759.

7. Luu YK, Kim K, Hsiao BS, Chu B, Hadjiargyrou M. Development of a nanostructured DNA delivery scaffold via electrospinning of PLGA and PLA-PEG block copolymers. J Control Release. 2003; 89(2):341-353.

Specialty Wound Care EMR: 6 Areas Driving Critical Value & Compliance
Volume 8, Issue 3
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Ultimate Standardization of First-Line Wound Dressings to a Single Type
Volume 8, Issue 3
1. Hinman CD, Maibach H. Effect of air exposure and occlusion on experimental human skin wounds. Nature. 1963;200:377–378.

2. Halwes T. Revealing Examples: Deming’s Quality Management Training. Accessed online at

3. McNees P, Kueven JA. The bottom line on wound care standardization.Healthcare Financial Management. 2011;65(3):70-4, 76.

Removing Deterrents Without Adding Potentially Harmful Agents: A New Paradigm for Effective Wound Healing
Volume 8, Issue 3
1. Tobin GR. Closure of contaminated wounds: biologic and technical considerations. Surg Clin N Amer. 1984;64:639.

2. Smith CM. Origin and uses of primum non nocere – above all, do no harm! J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;45 (4):371-377.

3. Robson MC. Advancing the science of wound bed preparation for chronic wounds. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2012;58 (11):10-12.

4. Liden BA. Hypochlorous acid: its multiple uses in wound care. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013;59(9):10-12.

5. Robson MC (Ed). Innovations for wound bed preparation: The role of drawtex hydroconductive dressings. WOUNDS. 2012; 24(9 Suppl):1-27.

6. Smith DJ, Karnoski RA, Patel A, Cruse CW, Brown KS, Robson MC: The treatment of partial-thickness burns with a hydroconductive wound dressing: clinical and mechanistic effects. Surg Sci. 2013; 4: 268-272.

7. McGuire J, Sadoughi N: Hydroconductive wound dressings. Podiatry Management. 2013; August 145-150.

8. Hackl F, et al: Epidermal regeneration by micrograft transplantation with immediate 100-fold expansion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012; 129: 443e-452e.

Achieving Efficient Wound Closure With Autologous Skin
Volume 8, Issue 1
1. Ollier LXEL: Greffes cutaneous ou autoplastiques. Bull Acad Med de Paris. 1872;1:243.

2. Robson MC, Krizek TJ, Wray RC: Care of the thermally injured patient. In Ballinger, Rutherford, and Zuidema, (eds.) The Management of Trauma. 2nd Ed, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1973.

3. Robson MC, Cooper DM, Aslam R, Gould LJ, Harding KG, Margolis DJ, et al: Guidelines for the treatment of venous ulcers. Wound Rep Regen. 2006;14:649-662.

4. Anderson JJ, Wallin KJ, Spencer L: Split thickness skin grafts for the treatment of non-healing foot and leg ulcers in patients with diabetes: A retrospective review. Diabet Foot Ankle. 2012; 3.doi: 10.3402/dfa.v3i0.10204. Epub 2012 Feb 20.

5. Tobin GR: Closure of contaminated wounds: Biologic and technical considerations. Surg Clin N Amer. 1984;64:639.

6. Blair VP, Brown JB: The use and uses of large split thickness skin grafts of intermediate thickness. Surg Gynecol Obstetr. 1929;49:82.

7. Mahmoud SM, Mohamed AA, Mahdi SE, Ahmed ME: Split-skin graft in the management of diabetic foot ulcers. J Wound Care. 2008;17(7):303-306.

8. Rosenblum B, Berglund A: Split thickness skin grafts used for diabetic wound healing. Podiatry Management. 2012 June/July 141-146.

9. Ramaanujam CL, Stapleton JJ, Kilpadi KL, Rodriguez RH, et al: Split-thickness skin grafts for closure of diabetic foot and ankle wounds: A retrospective review of 83 patients. Foot Ankle Spec. 2010 Oct; 3(5): 231-240.

10. Wood MK, Davies DM: Use of split-skin grafting in the treatment of chronic leg ulcers. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1995;77(3):222-223.

11. Liden BA: Hypochlorous acid: Its multiple uses in wound care. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013;59(9):8-10.

12. Robson MC: Advancing the science of wound bed preparation for chronic wounds. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2012;58 (11):10-12.

13. Spruce P: Preparing the wound to heal using a new hydroconductive dressing. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2012;58 (7):2-3.

14. Svensjo T, Pomahac B, Yao F, Slama J, Wasif N, Eriksson E: Autologous skin transplantation: Comparison of minced skin to other techniques. J Surg Res. 2002;103:19-29.

15. Boggio P, Tiberio R, Gattoni M, Colombo E, Leigheb G: Is there an easier way to autograft skin in chronic leg ulcers? “Minced micrografts,’ a new technique. J Eur Dermatol Venereol. 2008; 22(10):1168-1172.

16. Meek CP: Successful microdermagrafting using the Meek-Wall micro-dermatome. Am J Surg. 1958;96:557-558.

17. Hackl F, Bergmann J, Granter SR, Koyama T, Kiwanuka E, Zuhaili B, et al: Epidermal regeneration by micrograft transplantation with immediate 100-fold expansion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129:443e-452e.

Wound Healing in the Geriatric Patient
Volume 7, Issue 9
1. Sen CK, Gordillo GM, Roy S, et al. Human skin wounds. A major snowballing threat to public health and the economy. Wound Repair Regen. 17 (6): 763-771; 2009.

2. Poljšak B, Dahmane RG, Godi´c A. Intrinsic skin aging: The role of oxidative stress. Acta Dermatovenerologica. 21: 33-36, 2012.

3. Vierkötter A, Krutmann J. Environmental influences on skin aging and ethnic-specific manifestations. Dermato-Endocrinology. 4:3, 227-231; 2012.

4. Epel ES, Blackburn EH, Lin J et al. Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101 (49), 17312–17315; 2004.

5. Sentell TL, Ahn HJ, Juarez DT, et al. Comparison of potentially preventable hospitalizations related to diabetes among native Hawaiian, Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese elderly compared to whites. Prevention Chronic Dis. 10: 120340, 2013.

6. Safer JD. Thyroid hormone and wound healing. Journal of Thyroid Research. 2013;2013:124538. Epub.

7. Zouboulis CC, Makrantonaki E. Hormonal therapy of intrinsic aging. Rejuvenation Research. 15(3) 302-312; 2012.

8. Demling RH. The role of anabolic hormones for wound healing in catabolic states. Journal of Burns and Wounds. 2005 Jan 17;4:e2.

9. Jaul E. Non-healing wounds: The geriatric approach. Arch Gerontol Geriat. 49, 224-226; 2009.

10. Hughes RG, Bakos AD, O’Mara A, Kovner CT. Palliative wound care at the end of life. Home Health Care Management & Practice. 17 (3): 196-202; 2005.

Building Collaboration Between the Outpatient Wound Clinic and Long-Term Care
Volume 7, Issue 9
1. Park-Lee E, Caffrey C. Pressure ulcers among nursing home residents: United States, 2004. NCHS Data Brief. Feb 2009(14):1-8.

2. Levine JM, Ayello EA. MDS 3.0 section M: Skin Conditions: what the medical director needs to know. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. Mar 2011;12(3):179-183.

3. Gill TM, Gahbauer EA, Han L, Allore HG. Functional trajectories in older persons admitted to a nursing home with disability after an acute hospitalization. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Feb 2009;57(2):195-201.

4. Takahashi PY, Kiemele LJ, Jones JP, Jr. Wound care for elderly patients: advances and clinical applications for practicing physicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Feb 2004;79(2):260-267.

5. Bogie KM, Ho CH. Multidisciplinary approaches to the pressure ulcer problem. Ostomy Wound Manage. Oct 2007;53(10):26-32.

6. Jaul E. Non-healing wounds: the geriatric approach. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Sep-Oct 2009;49(2):224-226.

7. Kranke P, Bennett MH, Martyn-St James M, Schnabel A, Debus SE. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for chronic wounds. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012;4:CD004123.

8. Ennis WJ, Foremann P, Mozen N, Massey J, Conner-Kerr T, Meneses P. Ultrasound therapy for recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers: results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled, multicenter study. Ostomy Wound Manage. Aug 2005;51(8):24-39.

9. Levine SM, Sinno S, Levine JP, Saadeh PB. An evidence-based approach to the surgical management of pressure ulcers. Ann Plast Surg. Oct 2012;69(4):482-484.

10. Ouslander JG, Lamb G, Tappen R, et al. Interventions to reduce hospitalizations from nursing homes: evaluation of the INTERACT II collaborative quality improvement project. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. Apr 2011;59(4):745-753.

11. Cioroiu M, Levine JM. Improving Communication in the Wound Clinic. Today’s Wound Clinic. 2013;7(3).

Nutrition & Wound Healing in the Older Adult: Considerations for Wound Clinics
Volume 7, Issue 9
1. White JV, Guenter P, Jensen G, Malone A, Schofield M. Consensus Statement of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: Characteristics recommended for the identification and documentation of adult malnutrition (undernutrition). J Acad Nut Diet. 2012;112: 730-738.

2. National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: Clinical practice guidelines. Washington, DC. National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2009.

3. Demling R. Nutrition, anabolism, and the wound healing process: An overview. Eplasty. 2009; 9: e9. 2009 Feb 3. Accessed online:

4. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Library. Adult weight management (AWM): Determination of resting metabolic rate. Accessed online:

5. American Medical Directors Association. Diabetes management in the long-term care setting clinical practice guideline. Columbia, MD: AMDA 2008, revised 2010;13,3.

Community-Acquired MRSA in the Wound Clinic
Volume 7, Issue 8
1. Diekema DJ, Pfaller MA, Schmitz FJ, Smayevsky J, Bell J, Jones RN, et al. Survey of infections due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Europe, and the Western Pacific region for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1999. Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 32 Suppl 2:S114.

2. Talan DA, Krishnadasan A, Gorwitz RJ, Fosheim GE, Limbago B, Albrecht V, et al. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft-tissue infections in US emergency department patients, 2004 and 2008. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; doi: 10.1093/cid/cir308.

3. Skin & Aging. Increase in skin and soft tissue infections seen among children. Available at: Accessibility verified February 2, 2012.

4. Hansra NK, Shinkai K. Cutaneous community-acquired and hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Dermatol Ther. 2011; 24: 263-272.

5. Halem M, Trent J, Green J, Kerdel F. Community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Sem in Cutan Med and Surg. 2006; 25(2): 68-71.

6. Liu C, Bayer A, Cosgrove SE, Daum RS, Fridkin SK, Gorwitz RJ, et al. Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children. Clin Prac Guide. 2011; doi: 10.1093/cid/ciq146

7. The Reporter, Vanderbilt University Medical Center’s Weekly Newspaper. Study shows popular MRSA drug may not be best option. Accessed at: Accessibility verified February 6, 2012.

8. Management of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Federal Bureau of Prisons, Clinical Practice Guidelines. April 2011.

9. Crum NF, Lee RU, Thorton SA, Stine OC, Wallace MR, Barrozo C, et al. Fifteen-year study of the changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Amer Jour Med. 2006; 119: 943-951.

10. Fritzl SA, Hogan PG, Hayek G, Eisenstein KA, Rodriguez M, Epplin EK, et al. Household versus individual approaches to eradication of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in children: A randomized trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; doi: 10.1093/cid/cir919.

11. Barnes BE & Sampson DA. A literature review on community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States: Clinical information for primary care nurse practitioners. Jour Amer Acad Nurse Pract. 2011; 23: 23-32.

Wound Management Centers & Prosthetic Joint Infections: The Unlikeliest of Allies, or a Relationship Long Overdue?
Volume 7, Issue 8
1. Diagnosis and Management of Prosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.


3. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines Unit 2010.

4. Orthopedics Today. A Useful Guideline for Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

HIPAA and HITECH in 2013: What You Don’t Know Can Hurt You
Volume 7, Issue 7
1. Third annual benchmark study on patient privacy and data security. Ponemon Institute. December 2012. Accessible online at

Wound Care Quality in Numbers: Compiling Discrete Data Drives Meaningful Reports
Volume 7, Issue 7
1. Hess, C. Value of a specialty wound care electronic medical record. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2013;26(1):48.

2. Meaningful use definitions & objectives. Accessed online at

3. ICD-10-CM/PCS the next generation of coding. Accessed online at

Enhancing Perfusion Assessment of Chronic Wounds Through the Utilization of Fluorescence Angiography
Volume 7, Issue 7
1. Pestana IA, Coan B, Erdmann D, et al. Early experience with fluorescent angiography in free-tissue transfer reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009; 123:1239–44.

2. Wood EH. Diagnostic applications of indicator dilution technics in congenital heart disease. Circ Res. 1962;10:531–68.

3. Samet P, Bernstein WH, Jacobs W, et al. Indicator dilution curves in systemic arteriovenous fistulas. Am J Cardiol. 1964;13:176–87.

4. Schillig S. Indicator-dilution techniques in the estimation of renal blood flow. Am Heart J. 1964;68:675–81.

5. Ketterer SG, Weigand BD. The excretion of indocyanine green and its use in the estimation of hepatic blood flow. Clin Res. 1959;7:71.

6. Leevy CM, Stein SW, Cherrick GR, et al. Indocyanine green clearance: a test of liver excretory function. Clin Res. 1959;7:290.

7. Flower RW, Hochhelmer BF. A clinical technique and apparatus for simultaneous angiography of the separate retinal and choroidal circulations. Invest Ophthalmol. 1973;12:248–61.

8. Flower RW. Choroidal angiography using indocyanine green dye: a review and progress report. Opthalmol Dig. 1974;36:18–27.

9. Ott P. Hepatic elimination of indocyanine green with special reference to distribution kinetics and the influence of plasma protein binding. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1998;83 (Suppl 2):1–48.

10. Desmettre T, Devoisselle JM, Mordon S. Fluorescence properties and metabolic features of indocyanine green (ICG) as related to angiography. Surv Ophthalmol. 2000;45:15–27.

11. Benya R, Quintana J, Brundage B. Adverse reactions to indocyanine green: a case report and a review of the literature. Cathet Cardiovasc Diag. 1989;17:231–3.

12. Rubens FD, Ruel M, Fremes SE. A new and simplified method for coronary and graft imaging during CABG. Heart Surg Forum. 2002;5:141–4.

13. Taggart DP, Choudhary B, Anastasiadis K, et al. Preliminary experience with a novel intraoperative fluorescence imaging technique to evaluate the patency of bypass grafts in total arterial revascularization. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75:870–3.

14. Reuthebuch O, Kadner A, Lachat M, et al. Early bypass occlusion after deployment of nitinol connector devices. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127:1421–6.

15. Reuthebuch O, Haussler A, Genoni M, et al. Novadaq SPY: intraoperative quality assessment in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Chest. 2004;125: 418–24.

16. Balacumaraswami L, Abu-Omar Y, Anastasiadis K, et al. Does off-pump total arterial grafting increase the incidence of intraoperative graft failure? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;128:238–44.

17. Takahashi M, Ishikawa T, Higashidani K, et al. SPY: an innovative intra-operative imaging system to evaluate graft patency during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2004;3:479–83.

18. Balacumaraswami L, Abu-Omar Y, Choudhary B, et al. A comparison of transit-time flowmetry and intraoperative fluorescence imaging for assessing coronary artery bypass graft patency. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;130:315–20.

19. Desai ND, Miwa S, Kodama D, et al. Improving the quality of coronary bypass surgery with intraoperative angiography: validation of a new technique. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:1521–5.

20. Desai ND, Miwa S, Kodama D, et al. A randomized comparison of intraoperative indocyanine green angiography and transit-time flow measurement to detect technical errors in coronary bypass grafts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;132:585–94.

21. Desai ND, Moussa F, Singh SK, et al. Intraoperative fluorescence angiography to determine the extent of injury after penetrating cardiac trauma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;136:218–9.

22. Waseda K, Ako J, Hasegawa T, et al. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging system for on-site assessment of off-pump coronary artery bypass graft. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009;2:604–12.

23. Sekijima M, Tojimbara T, Sato S, et al. An intraoperative fluorescent imaging system in organ transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2004;36:2188–90.

24. Kubota K, Kita J, Shimoda M, et al. Intraoperative assessment of reconstructed vessels in living donor liver transplantation, using a novel fluorescence imaging technique. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2006;13:100–4.

25. Komorowska-Timek E; Gurtner GC. Intraoperative perfusion mapping with laser-assisted indocyanine green imaging can predict and prevent complications in immediate breast reconstruction. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2010; 125(4):1065-1073.

26. Liu DZ, Mathes DW, Zenn MR, Neligan PC. The application of indocyanine green fluorescence angiography in plastic surgery. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2011;27:355-364.

27. Howard RT, Valerio IL, Basile PL, Nesti L. The use of intraoperative fluorescent angiography to maximize fasciocutaneous flap coverage of battle field extremity injuries. Supplement to Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Vol. 128, No. 4 (2011):79-80. Abstract.

28. Lepow BD, Perry D, Armstrong D. The use of SPY intra-operative vascular angiography as a predictor of wound healing. Podiatry Management. 2011;141-148.

An Historical Perspective on Negative Pressure in Wound Care
Volume 7, Issue 6
1. Suissa D, Danino A, Nikolis A. Negative-pressure therapy versus standard wound care: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128(5):498e–503e.

2. Armstrong DG, Marston WA, Reyzelman AM, Kirsner RS. Comparative effectiveness of mechanically and electrically powered negative pressure wound therapy devices: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Wound Repair Regen. 2012;20(3):332–41.

Pairing Advanced Wound Care Therapy with NPWT
Volume 7, Issue 6
1. International case studies using Adaptic Touch non-adhering silicone dressing: Case Studies. Accessed online at

2. Cullen B, Ivins N. Promogran & Promogran Prisma made easy. Wounds Int. 2010;1(3).

3. Cullen B, Smith R, McCulloch E, et al. Mechanism of action of Promogran, a protease modulating matrix, for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Wound Repair Regen. 2002; 10(1):16-25.

Benefits of Negative Pressure Therapy Application in Newborns
Volume 7, Issue 6
1. Magnuson DK, Parry RL, Chwals WJ. Abdominal wall defects. Perinatal Medicine Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby-Elsevier; 2006: 1306-1308.

Identifying Appropriate Interventionists for Lower-Limb Preservation
Volume 7, Issue 5
1. Gitelis S, Malawer M, McDonald D, Derman G. Principles of limb salvage. Chapman’s Orthopaedic Surgery. 126; 3310. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2001.

2. Thrombolysis in the management of lower limb peripheral arterial occlusion — A consensus document. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2003; 7:S337–S349.

3. Rogers LC, et al. Toe and flow: Essential components and structure of the amputation prevention team. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Sep;52(3 Suppl):23S-27S.

Utilizing Orthotic & Prosthetic Intervention in Wound Care
Volume 7, Issue 5
1. Atlas of limb prosthetics: Surgical, prosthetic, and rehabilitation principles. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2nd Edition; 1981. Edited by John H. Bowker and John W. Michael. Mosby Year Book.

Peripheral Arterial Disease: Giving Appreciation to an Often-Overlooked Cause of Poor Wound Healing
Volume 7, Issue 5
1. Meijer WT, et al. Peripheral arterial disease in the elderly: The rotterdam study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998;18(2):185-92.

Avoiding Legal Pitfalls for Home Health Services in Wound Care
Volume 7, Issue 4
1. Fife C, Walker D, Thomson B, Carter, M. Limitations of daily living activities in patients with venous stasis ulcers undergoing compression bandaging: Problems with the concept of self-bandaging. WOUNDS. 2007:19(10):255-257.

The Future of NPS in Wound Care: Delivery of Quality Care & Cost Savings?
Volume 7, Issue 4
1. Alpert PT, Fjone A, Candela L. Nurse practitioner: Reflecting on the future. Nursing Administration Quarterly. 2002; 26(5):79-89.

2. De Milt DG, Fitzpatrick JJ, McNulty R. Nurse practitioners’ job satisfaction and intent to leave current positions, the nursing profession, and the nurse practitioner role as a direct care provider. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2011; 23:42-50.

3. Scudder, L. Growth of the nurse practitioner workforce. MedCare. 2012. Accessed online:

Incorporating the Nurse Practitioner Into Hospital-Based Outpatient Wound Care
Volume 7, Issue 4
1. Hooker R, et al. Does the employment of physician assistants and nurse practitioners increase liability? Journal of Medical Licensure and Discipline. 2009;95(2):6-16.

2. State practice environment. American Association of Nurse Practitioners. Accessed online:

3. Nurse practitioner prescribing authority and physician supervision requirements for diagnosis and treatment, 2011. Kaiser State Health Facts. Accessed online:

4. Turner S. CMS broadens concept of hospital ‘medical staff’ to provide greater opportunities for nurses and other nonphysician practitioners. Geriatric Nursing. 2012;33(4):302-3.

5. The role of nurse practitioners in meeting increasing demand for primary care. NGA Center for Best Practices. Accessed online:

Managing Pain Medication in the Outpatient Wound Clinic
Volume 7, Issue 4
1. Differential diagnosis: Nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Am J Manag Care. 2006;12(9 Suppl):S256-62.

8 Steps to Developing a Community-Based Wound Care Team: A Practical Guide for Reaching Beyond Wound Center Walls
Volume 7, Issue 3
1. Sheehan P, Jones P, Caselli A, Giurini JM, Veves A. Percent change in wound area of diabetic foot ulcers over a four-week period is a robust predictor of complete healing in a 12-week prospective trial. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(6):1879-1882.

2. Snyder RJ, Kirsner RS, Warriner RA, Lavery LA, Sheehan P. Consensus recommendations on advancing the standard of care for treating neuropathic foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. WOUNDS. 2010; 56(Suppl 4):S1-S24.

3. Driver VR, Fabbi M, Gibbons, G, Lavery LA. The costs of diabetic foot: the economic case for the limb salvage team. J Vasc Surg. 2010; 52(3), Supplement:17S–22S.

4. Frykberg RK. Team approach toward lower extremity amputation prevention in diabetes. JAPMA. 1997;87(7):305-312.

5. Sumpio BE, Aruny J, Blume PA. The multidisciplinary approach to limb salvage. Acta Chir Belg. 2004;(104):647-653.

Optimizing Wound Care Processes and Workflows to Drive Documentation Compliance
Volume 7, Issue 3
1. The national alliance for health information technology report to the office of the national coordinator for health information technology on defining key health information technology terms, April 2008. Georgetown Law Library. Accessed online:

2. Clinical decision support systems: State of the art. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Accessed online:

3. Current procedural terminology CPT 2013. American Medical Association.

4. Hess, CT. Wound care policies and procedures. 2013. (Excerpted with permission.)

5. HCPCS Level II codes are maintained by the US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).

6. Hess, CT. Clinical guide to skin and wound care (7th ed). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. 2012.

Making the Case for Specialized Wound Care
Volume 7, Issue 3
1. Lazarus GS, Cooper DM, Knighton DR, et al. Definitions and guidelines for assessment of wounds and evaluation of healing. Arch Dermatol. 1994;130(4):489-493.

2. Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG, eds. Chronic Wound Care: A Clinical Source Book for Healthcare Professionals. 3rd ed. Wayne, PA. HMP Communications: 2001.

3. Reiber GE. The epidemiology of diabetic foot problems. Diabet Med. 1996;13(suppl 1) S6-S11.

4. Economic costs of diabetes in the US in 2012. Diabetes Care. Published ahead of print March 6, 2013, doi:10.2337/dc12-2625.

5. Ovington, LG. The evolution of wound management: ancient origins and advances of the past 20 years. Home Healthcare Nurse. 2002;20:652-656. Association for the Advancement of Wound Care, statement on comprehensive multidisciplinary wound care, 2005.

6. Sipos P, Gyory H, Hagymasi K, Ondrejka P, Blazovics A. Special wound healing methods used in ancient Egypt and the mythological background. World Journal of Surgery. 2004;28: 211-216.

7. Margolis DJ, Kantor J, Berlin JA: Healing of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers receiving standard treatment: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:692–695.

8. Healogics market research statistics on US wound care centers, 2013.

9. Saap LJ, Falanga V. Debridement performance index and its correlation with complete closure of diabetic foot ulcers. Wound Rep Reg. 2002;10:354-359.

10. Veves A, Giurini J, LoGerfo F. The diabetic foot: Medical and surgical management. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. 2006.

11. Guo S, Counte MA, Gillespie KN, Schmitz H. Cost-effectiveness of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of diabetic ulcers. Int J Technol Assess Health. 2003;19(4):731-737.

Effective Measurers for Recruiting Wound Clinic Staff
Volume 7, Issue 3
1. Armstrong DG, et al. Are diabetes-related wounds and amputations worse than cancer? International Wound Journal. 2007;4(4):286-287.

Improving Communication in the Wound Clinic
Volume 7, Issue 3
1. Preventing Pressure Ulcers in Hospitals: A Toolkit for Improving Quality of Care, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Accessed online at

Diabetes Screening in the Wound Clinic: Reader Survey Results
Volume 7, Issue 3
1. Sigler, T. Monitoring blood glucose values in the wound clinic: An aggressive approach to diabetes management. Today’s Wound Clinic. 2013;7(2):18-19.

Diabetic Wound Healing Through Nutrition and Glycemic Control
Volume 7, Issue 2
1. National diabetes statistics, 2011. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Accessed online:

2. Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance — global burden: prevalence and projections, 2010 and 2030. International Diabetes Federation. Accessed online:

3. McLennan SV, McGill M, Twigg SM, Yue DK. Improving wound-healing outcomes in diabetic foot ulcers. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2007;2(2):205-213.

4. Blakytny R, Jude E. The molecular biology of chronic wounds and delayed healing in diabetes. Diabet Med. 2006;23(6):594–608.

5. Kane DP. Surgical repair in advanced wound caring. In: Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG. Chronic Wound Care: A Clinical Source Book for Healthcare Professionals. 3rd ed. Wayne, PA: HMP Communications; 2001:404.

6. Kenshole AB. Wholistic care of the person with diabetes. In: Krasner DL, Rodeheaver GT, Sibbald RG. Chronic Wound Care: A Clinical Source Book for Healthcare Professionals. 3rd ed. Wayne, PA: HMP Communications; 2001:584.

7. Pressure ulcer treatment: quick reference guide. European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Accessed online:

8. McAndrew LM, Napolitano MA, Pogach LM, et al. The impact of self-monitoring of blood glucose on a behavioral weight loss intervention for patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2012; June 26 [Epub ahead of print]. Accessed online:

Raising the Debate on Wound Care and Diabetes Education
Volume 7, Issue 2
1. National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011. CDC. Accessed online:

2. Eligibility Requirements. National Certification Board of Diabetes Educators. Accessed online:

3. Diabetes Report Card 2012. CDC. Accessed online:

4. Professional Practice Experience. National Certification Board of Diabetes Educators. Accessed online:

5. Diabetic Wound Management Course Information. Wound Care Education Institute. Accessed online:

6. DWC Certification. National Alliance of Wound Care. Accessed online:

Diabetic Foot: The Heart of the Matter
Volume 7, Issue 2
1. Margolis DJ, Malay DS, Hoffstad OJ, et al. Incidence of diabetic foot ulcer and lower extremity amputation among Medicare beneficiaries, 2006 to 2008: Data Points #2. 2011 Feb. 17. In: Data Points Publication Series [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2011-. Accessed online:

2. Hirsch AT, et al. ACC/AHA 2005 practice guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): a collaborative report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease): endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Society for Vascular Nursing; TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus; and Vascular Disease Foundation. Circulation. 2006; 113(11): e463-654.

Business Briefs: Understanding Medicare Payment Changes for HOPDs and Physicians in 2013
Volume 7, Issue 2
1. Schaum, K. The business of wound care: the physician’s perspective. Today’s Wound Clinic. 2012;6(2):6-8.

2. Schaum, K. Integrating new/updated codes into your business for 2013. Today’s Wound Clinic. 2013; 7(1):6-8.

Measuring Quality in Wound Care
Volume 7, Issue 1
1. Fife CE. The changing face of wound care: measuring quality. Today’s Wound Clinic. 2012;8:10-14.

2. Fife CE, Carter MJ, Walker D. Why is it so hard to do the right thing in wound care? Wound Rep Reg. 2010;18:154–158.

Proving Your Quality of Care Compliance: A Case Study
Volume 7, Issue 1
1. Fife CE, Carter MJ, Walker D. Why is it so hard to do the right thing in wound care? Wound Rep Reg. 2010;18:154–158.

2. Cassel C, Jain S. Assessing individual physician performance, does measurement suppress motivation? JAMA. 2012;307(24):2595-2597.

3. Bitton A, Flier L, Jha A. Health information technology reform in the era of care delivery reform, to what end? JAMA. 12;307(24): 2593-2594.

Dehydrated Human Amniotic Tissue Improves Healing Time, Cost of Care
Volume 7, Issue 1
1. Niknejad H, Peirovi H, Jorjani M, Ahmadiani A, Ghanavi J, Seifalian AM. Properties of the amniotic membrane for potential use in tissue engineering. Eur Cell Mater. 2008;15:88-99.

2. Rahman I, Said DG, Maharajan VS, Dua HS. Amniotic membrane in ophthalmology: indications and limitations. Eye. 2009; (23)10:1954–1961.

3. Baradaran-Rafii A, Aghayan H, Arjmand B, Javadi M. Amniotic membrane transplantation. Iran J Ophthalmic Res. 2007;(2)1.58-75.

4. John T. Human amniotic membrane transplantation: past, present, and future. Ophthal Clin N Am. 2003;16:43-65.

5. Adly OA, Moghazy AM, Abbas AH, Ellabban AM, Ali OS, Mohamed BA. Assessment of amniotic and polyurethane membrane dressings in the treatment of burns. Burns. 2010;36(5):703-10.

6. Huiren Tao, Hongbin Fan. Implantation of amniotic membrane to reduce postlaminectomy epidural adhesions. Eur Spine J. 2009;18(8):1202-12.

7. Arora R, Mehta D, Jain V. Amniotic membrane transplantation in acute chemical burns. Eye (Lond). 2005;(19)3:273-8.

8. Zelen C, Seren, T, Fetterolf D. Human Amniotic Membrane in the treatment of non-healing diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized controlled trial. Poster presentation, Clinical Symposium o-n Advances in Skin and Wound Care, 2012

9. Jay R, Landsman A. A retrospective study of a novel allograft membrane to prevent post-operative adhesions in the repair of peroneal and posterior tibial tendons. Poster presentation, Desert Foot, 2012.

10. Abrams M. Our experience utilizing advanced wound therapy combined with an evidence-based approach to threatening wounds reduces amputations in the caribbean healthcare system. Poster presentation, Desert Foot, 2012.

The Importance of Compression in the Outpatient Wound Center
Volume 6, Issue 9

1. Sieggreen MY, Kline RA. Venous disease and lymphedema management. In Baranoski S, Ayello EA (eds) Wound Care Essentials, Practice Principles, 3rd Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012;360.

2. Gillespie DL, et al. Venous ulcer diagnosis, treatment & prevention of recurrences. J Vasc Surg. 2010; 52(suppl): 8S-14S.

3. Nelzen O, et al. The prevalence of chronic lower-limb ulceration has been underestimated: results of a validated population questionnaire. Br J Surg. 83(2):255-58.

4. Fife C, Carter MJ, Walker D. Why is it so hard to do the right thing in wound care? Wound Repair Regen.2010;18(2):154-8.

5. Partsch H, Clark M, Mosti G, et al. Classification of compression bandages: practical aspects. Derm Surg. 2008;34:600-609.

6. Four-Layer Bandaging: From Concept to Practice Part 2: Application of the Four-Layer System. (Accessed Nov. 28, 2012).

7. Hopkins A. Technical guide: how to apply effective multilayer compression bandaging. Wound Essentials. 2006;1.

Efficacious Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulceration with Total Contact Casting: Coding for Procedure and Product
Volume 6, Issue 9

1. Sedory Holzer SE, Camerota A, Martens L. Costs and duration of care for lower extremity ulcers in patients with diabetes. Clin Ther. 1998; 20:169–181.

2. Reiber GE, Boyko EJ, Smith DG. Lower extremity foot ulcers and amputations in diabetes. In: National diabetes data group. Diabetes in America, 2nd ed. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, NIDDK, NIH: 1995.

3. Margolis D, Malay DS, Hoffstad OJ, et. al. Incidence of diabetic foot ulcer and lower extremity amputation among medicare beneficiaries, 2006 to 2008. University of Pennsylvania DEcIDE Center, under Contract No. HHSA29020050041I). Rockville, MD: AHRQ. January 2011. AHRQ Publication No. 10(11)-EHC009-1-EF.

4. Reiber GE, Ledous WE. Epidemiology of diabetic foot ulcers and amputations: evidence for prevention. In: Williams R, Herman W, Kinmonth A-L, et al., eds. The evidence base for diabetes care. London: John Wiley & Sons; 2002; 641-665.

5. Honeycutt AA, Boyle JP, Broglio KR, et. al. A dynamic Markov model for forecasting diabetes prevalence in the United States through 2050. Health Care Manage Sci. 2003; 6(3):155-164.

6. Imperatore G, Cadwell BL, Geiss L, et al. Thirty-year trends in cardiovascular risk factor levels among U.S. adults with diabetes: national health and nutrition examination surveys, 1971-2000. Am J Epidemiol. 2004; 160(6):531-539.

7. Engelgau MM, Geiss LS, Saaddine JB, et al. The evolving diabetes burden in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 2004; 140(11):945-950.

8. Schoen C, Osborn R, Doty MM, Squires D, Peugh J, Applebaum S. A survey of primary care physicians in eleven countries, 2009: perspectives on care, costs, and experiences. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009; 28:1171–1183.

9. Doty MM, Collins SR, Nicholson JL, Rustgi SD. Failure to protect: why the individual insurance market is not a viable option for most U.S. families: findings from the commonwealth fund biennial health insurance survey, 2007. issue brief (Commonw Fund). 2009; 62:1–16.

10. Doty MM, Collins SR, Rustgi SD, Nicholson JL. Out of options: why so many workers in small businesses lack affordable health insurance, and how health care reform can help. Findings from the commonwealth fund biennial health insurance survey, 2007. issue brief (Commonw Fund). 2009; 67:1–22.

11. Schoen C, Collins SR, Kriss JL, Doty MM. How many are underinsured? trends among U.S. adults, 2003 and 2007. Health Aff (Millwood). 2008; 27:298–309.

12. Wu SC, Jensen JL, Weber AK, Robinson DE, Armstrong DG. Use of pressure offloading devices in diabetic foot ulcers. Do we practice what we preach? Diabetes Care. 2008; 31(11):2118–2119.

13. Myerson M, Papa J, Eaton K, Wilson K. The total contact cast for management of neuropathic plantar ulceration of the foot. JBJS (Am). 1992; 74:261-269.

14. Helm PA, Walker SC, Pullium G. Total contact casting in diabetic patients with neuropathic foot ulcerations. Arch Phys MedRehab. 1984; 65:69l-3.

15. Pring DJ, Casiebanca N. Simple plantar ulcers treated by below-knee plaster and moulded double-rocker plaster shoe: a comparative study. Lepr Rev. 1982; 53:261-4.

16. Pollard JP, LeQuesne LP. Method of healing diabetic forefoot ulcers. Br Med J. 1983; 286:436-437.

17. Joseph B, Joshua S, Fritschi EP. The moulded double-rocker plaster shoe in the field treatment of plantar ulcer. Lepr Rev. 1983; 54:39-44.

18. Diamond JE, Sinacore DR, Mueller MJ. Moulded double-rocker plaster shoe for healing a diabetic plantar ulcer: a case report. Phys Ther. 1987; 67:1550-2.

19. Sinacore DR, Mueller MJ, Diamond JE, Blair VP, Drury D, Rose SJ. Diabetic plantar ulcers treated by total contact casting. Phys Ther. 1987; 67:1543-9.

20. Walker SC, Helm PA, Pullium G. total contact casting and chronic diabetic neuropathic foot ulcerations: healing rates by wound location. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1987; 68:217-21.

21. Kaplan M, Gelber RH. Care of plantar ulcerations: comparing applications, materials and non-casting. Lepr Rev. 1988; 59:59-66.

22. Bossen F, Lethner F. Plantar casts in the management of advanced ischemic and neuropathic diabetic foot lesions. Diabet Med. 1989; 6:720-3.

23. Birke JA, Novick A, Patout CA, Coleman WC. Healing rates of plantar ulcers in leprosy and diabetes. Lepr Rev. 1992; 63:365-74.

24. Sinacore DR. Healing times of diabetic ulcers in the presence of fixed deformities of the foot using total contact casting. FootAnkle Int. 1998;19:613-8.

25. Cavanaugh PR, Owings TM: Nonsurgical strategies for healing and preventing recurrence of diabetic foot ulcers. Foot Anke Clin N Am. 2006; 11:735-743.

26. Boulton AJM, Kirshner RS, Vileikyte L. Neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351(1):48-55.

27. Fife CE, Carter MJ, Walker D. Why is it so hard to do the right thing in wound care? Wound Rep & Regen. 2010; 18:154–158.

Skin & Wound Management Under the Wraps
Volume 6, Issue 9

1. Habif T. Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby; 2004.

2. Bergan JJ, et al. Chronic venous disease. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:488-498.

3. Palfreyman S, Nelson EA, Michaels JA. Dressings for venous leg ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2007;335:244-255. Erratum in BMJ. 2007;335:0.

Chronic Venous Insufficiency: Pathophysiology and Treatment
Volume 6, Issue 9

1. Wolinsky CD, Waldorf H. Chronic venous disease. Med Clin North Am. 2009 Nov;93(6):1333-46.

2. Robertson L, Evans C, Fowkes FG. Epidemiology of chronic venous disease. Phlebology. 2008;23(3):103-11.

3. Chiu JJ, Chien S. Effects of disturbed flow on vascular endothelium: pathophysiological basis and clinical perspectives. Physiol Rev. 2011 Jan;91(1):327-87.

4. Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Smith PD, Nicolaides AN, Boisseau MR, Eklof B. Chronic venous disease. N Engl J Med. 2006 Aug 3;355(5):488-98.

5. Brooks EG, Trotman W, Wadsworth MP, Taatjes DJ, Evans MF, Ittleman FP, Callas PW, Esmon CT, Bovill EG. Valves of the deep venous system: an overlooked risk factor. Blood. 2009 Aug 6;114(6):1276-9.

6. Ono T, Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Takase S. Monocyte infiltration into venous valves. J Vasc Surg. 1998 Jan;27(1):158-66.

7. Takase S, Pascarella L, Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GW. Hypertension-induced venous valve remodeling. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Jun;39(6):1329-34.

8. Nicolaides AN. Chronic venous disease and the leukocyte-endothelium interaction: from symptoms to ulceration. Angiology. 2005 Sep-Oct;56 Suppl 1:S11-9.

9. Pascarella L, Lulic D, Penn AH, Alsaigh T, Lee J, Shin H, Kapur V, Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GW. Mechanisms in experimental venous valve failure and their modification by Daflon 500 mg. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2008 Jan;35(1):102-10.

10. Pascarella L, Schmid Schönbein GW. Causes of telengiectasias, reticular veins, and varicose veins. Semin Vasc Surg. 2005 Mar;18(1):2-4.

11. Jones RH, Carek PJ. Management of varicose veins. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Dec 1;78(11):1289-94.

12. Marinovic Kulišic S, Lupi D. Pharmacological Treatment in Patients with Chronic Venous Disease. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2012 OKTOBER;20(3):197-200.

13. Schumann H, Calow T, Weckesser S, Müller ML, Hoffmann G. Water-filtered infrared A for the treatment of chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs at home: a randomized controlled blinded study. Br J Dermatol. 2011 Sep;165(3):541-51.

14. Maroo N, Choudhury S, Sen S, Chatterjee S. Oral doxycycline with topical tacrolimus for treatment of stasis dermatitis due to chronic venous insufficiency: A pilot study. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012 Jan;44(1):111-3.

15. Kakkos SK, Griffin M, Geroulakos G, Nicolaides AN. The efficacy of a new portable sequential compression device (SCD Express) in preventing venous stasis. J Vasc Surg. 2005 Aug;42(2):296-303.

Telemedicine: The Key to Opening the Door to Wound Closure in Rural Communities?
Volume 6, Issue 7

1. Carlson T, Collins L. A long distance relationship that works: exploring telemedicine in wound care. Today’s Wound Clinic. 2009;3(3):25-26.

2. Lowery J, Hamill J, Wilkins E, Clements E. Technical overview of a Web-based telemedicine system for wound assessment. Adv in Skin Wound Care. 2002;15:165-6, 168-9.

3. Dobke M, Renkielska A, De Neve J, Chao J, Bhavsar D. Telemedicine for problematic wound management: enhancing communication between long-term care, skilled nursing, and home caregivers and a surgical wound specialist. WOUNDS. 2006;18(9):256-261.

4. American Telemedicine Association. Medicare payment of telemedicine and telehealth services.

5. Chelmsford N. A newly approved CSM Medicare package expands reimbursement coverage for telehealth origination sites. 2009.

6. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Expansion of Medicare telehealth services for calendar year 2010. MLN Matters MM6705. 2009.

7. PT in Motion. February 2010.

8. Little, A. Outcomes of an integrated telehealth network demonstration project. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health. 2003.

9. Carlson T, Collins L. A long distance relationship that works: exploring telemedicine in wound care. Today’s Wound Clinic. 2009;3(3):25-26.

10. Jones S, Banwell P, Shakespeare P. Telemedicine in wound healing. Int Wound J. 2004;1(4):225-230.

11. Kobza L, Scheurich A. The impact of telemedicine on outcomes of chronic wounds in the home care setting. OSM. 2000;46(10):48-53.

12. Flynn S. When the best doctor is far away. Parade Magazine. 2009;16.

13. Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Salmhofer W, Binder B, et al. Feasibility and acceptance of telemedicine for wound care in patients with chronic leg ulcers. J Telemed Telecare. 2006;12 Suppl 1:15-7.

14. Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Salmhofer W, Binder B, Okcu A, Kerl H, Soyer HP. Learning through telemedicine: case study of a wound care network. J Telemed Telecare. 2006;12 Suppl 1:15-7.

15. Halstead LS, Dang T, et al. Teleassessment compared with live assessment of pressure ulcers in a wound clinic: a pilot study. Adv in Skin Wound Care. 2003;91-96.

Addressing Diabetes Control: What Clinicians Must Know
Volume 6, Issue 5

1. American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2012. Diabetes Federation. Accessed May 30, 2012.

2. IDF Diabetes Atlas. Accessed May 30, 2012

3. Unwin N, Marlin A. Diabetes action now: WHO and IDF working together to raise awareness worldwide. Diabetes Voice. 2004;49:27-31.

4. CDC. National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2011. Accessed May 30, 2012.

5. National Diabetes Education Program, US Department of Health and Human Services. Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. Accessed May 30, 2012.

6. Blakytny R, Jude E. The molecular biology of chronic wounds and delayed healing in diabetes. Diabet Med. 2006;23:594-608.

7. Falanga, V. Wound healing and its impairment in the diabetic foot. Lancet. 2005;366:1736-1743.

8. Scarborough P. Diabetes and wound care. In: McCulloch JM, Kloth LC, eds. Wound Healing: Evidence-Based Management. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Company; 2010:231-247.

9. Scarborough P. Diabetes across the physical therapist practice patterns. In: Hardage J, ed. Focus: Physical Therapist Practice in Geriatrics 2011. Madison, WI: Section on Geriatrics; 2011.

10. AADE. AADE7M Self-Care Behaviors. Diabetes Educ. 2008;34:445-449.

11. Franz MJ, Bantle JP, Beebe CA, et al. Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:148-198.

12. Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the american college of sports medicine and the american diabetes association: joint position statement executive summary. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:2692-2696.

13. Goldstein DE, Little RR, Lorenz RA, Malone JI, Nathan DM, Peterson CM. Tests of glycemia: position statement. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(suppl 1):S91-S93.

14. Austin MA, Powers MA. Monitoring. In: Mensing C, ed. The art and science of diabetes self-management education desk reference. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: American Association of Diabetes Educators; 2011:167-193.

15. Funnell MM, Brown TL, Childs BP, et al. National standards for diabetes self-
management education. Diabetes Care. 2011;34 (Suppl 1);S89-S96.

16. American Diabetes Association. Depression. Accessed May 30, 2012.

Treating Painful Neuropathy Associated with Diabetes
Volume 6, Issue 5

1. Abbott CA, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of painful diabetic neuropathy in a large community-based diabetic population in the U.K. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(10):2220-2224.

2. Fossel, E. Improvement of temperature and flow in feet of subjects with diabetes with use of a transdermal preparation of l-arginine: a pilot study. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(1):284-285.

3. Nawfar SA, Yacob NB. Effects of monochromatic infrared energy therapy on diabetic feet with peripheral sensory neuropathy: a randomised controlled trial. Singapore Med J. 2011;52(9):669-72.

4. Boulton AJM, Malik RA, Arezzo JC, Sosenko JM. Diabetic somatic neuropathies. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(6):1458-1486.

5. Cornblath DR. Surgical decompression for diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(2):421-422.

Additional Resources
Jacobs AM. Orally administered l-methylfolate, methylcobalamin, and pyridoxal 5’-phosphate reduces diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Abstracts of New Cardiovascular Horizons Meeting. Oral Presentation, 2008.

Bowker JH, Pfeifer MA. Levin and O’Neal’s The Diabetic Foot, 6th Ed. 2001:33-64.

Yao P, et al. Sustained-release oxycodone tablets for moderate to severe painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a multicenter, open-labeled, postmarketing clinical observation. Pain Med. 2012;13(1):107-114.

Ormseth MJ, Scholz BA, Boomershine CS. Duloxetine in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2011;5:343-356.

Hartemann A, et al. Painful diabetic neuropathy: diagnosis and management. Diabetes Metab. 2011;37(5):377-388.

Chen W, Zhang Y, Liu JP. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;15(6):CD007796.

Mittal M, et al. Retrospective chart review of duloxetine and pregabalin in the treatment of painful neuropathy. Int J Neurosci. 2011;121(9):521-7.

Chen S, et al. Factors associated with pain medication selection among patients diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: a retrospective study. J Med Econ. 2011;14(4):411-420.

Webster LR, et al. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of NGX-4010, capsaicin 8% patch, in an open-label study of patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;93(2):187-197.

Pinzur MS. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Foot Ankle Clin. 2011;16(2):345-349.

E-Stimulation: An Effective Modality to Facilitate Wound Healing
Volume 6, Issue 4

1. Baranoski S, Ayello EA. In Wound Care Essentials: Practice Principles; pp 200-201.

2. Kloth L, McCulloch J. Promotion of wound healing with electrical stimulation. Adv Wound Care. 1996;9(5):42-54.

3. Franek A, Kostur R, Polak A, Taradaj J. Using high-voltage electrical stimulation in the treatment of recalcitrant pressure ulcers: results of a randomized controlled clinical study. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2012; 58(3):30-44.

4. Kloth L. Endogenous and Exogenous Electrical Fields for Wound Healing. In: McCulloch JM, Kloth LC, eds. Wound Healing: Evidence-Based Management. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Company; 2010:450-513.

5. Dineur, E. Note sur la sensibilities des leukocytes a l’electricité. Bull Seances Soc Belge Microscopic (Bruxelles) 1891; 18:113.

6. Fukushima, Gruler KH. Studies of galvanotaxis of leukocytes. Med J Osaka Univ. 1953; 4:195.

7. Monguio, J. Uber die polare wirkung des galvanischen stromes auf leukozyten. Z Biol. 1933; 93:553–556.

8. Orida N, Feldman JD. Directional protrusive pseudopodial activity and motility in macrophages induced by extracellular electric fields. Cell Motil. 1982; 2:243–255.

9. Robinson KR, Messerli MA. Left/right, up/down: The role of endogenous electrical fields as directional signals in development, repair, and invasion. Bioessays. 2003; 25:759–766.

10. Falanga V, Bourguignon GY, Bourguignon LYW. Electrical stimulation increases the expression of fibroblast receptors for transforming growth factor-beta. J Invest Dermatol. 1987;88:488-492.

11. Greenberg J, et al. The effect of electrical stimulation (RPES) on wound healing and angiogenesis in second-degree burns. Abstract No. 44. In Program and Abstracts of the 13th Annual Symposium on Advanced Wound Care, Dallas, TX, April 1–4, 2000.

12. Merriman HL, Hegyi CA, Albright-Overton CR, et al. A comparison of four electrical stimulation types of Staphylococcus aureus growth in vitro. Rehabil Res Develop. 2004;41(2):139-146.

13. Daeschlein G, Assadian O, Kloth LC, et al. Antibacterial activity of positive and negative polarity low-voltage pulsed current (LVPC) on six typical gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial pathogens of chronic wounds. Wound Rep Regen. 2007; 15:399-409.

14. Goldman R. Electrotherapy promotes healing and microcirculation of infrapopliteal ischemic wounds: a prospective pilot study. Advances in Skin and Wound Care. 2004;17.

15. Mehmandoust FG, Torkaman G, Firoozabadi M, Talebi G. Anodal and cathodal pulsed electrical stimulation on skin wound healing in guinea pigs. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007; 44(4):611-8.

16. Brown M, Gogia P. Effects of high voltage stimulation on cutaneous wound healing in rabbits. Phys Ther. 1987;662-667.

17. Biophysical Agents in Pressure Ulcer Management, National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: clinical practice guideline. Washington, DC: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel; 90-91, 2009.

18. Garber SL, et al. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment following spinal cord injury: a clinical practice guideline for health care professionals. Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines. Washington, DC: Paralyzed Veterans of America, 2000.

19. Houghton PE, Campbell KE, Fraser CH, et al. Electrical stimulation therapy increases rate of healing of pressure ulcers in community-dwelling people with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(5):669-78.

20. Jünger M, Arnold A, Zuder D, Stahl HW, Heising S. Local therapy and treatment costs of chronic, venous leg ulcers with electrical stimulation (Dermapulse): a prospective, placebo controlled, double blind trial. Wound Repair Regen. 2008 Jul-Aug;16(4):480-7.

21. American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS). Chronic Wounds of the Lower extremity. 2007. Accessed April 15, 2012.

22. Houghton PE, Kincaid CB, Lovell M, Campbell KE, et al. Effect of electrical stimulation on chronic leg ulcer size and appearance. Phys Ther. 2003;83(1):17-23. Accessed April 15, 2012.

23. Baker LL, Chambers R, DeMuth SK, et al. Effects of electrical stimulation on wound healing in patients with diabetic ulcers. Diabetes Care. 1997; 20:405–412.

24. Peters EJ, Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, Fleischli JG. Electric stimulation as an adjunct to heal diabetic foot ulcers: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jun;82(6):721-5.

25. Jankovc A, Binic I. Frequency rhythmic electrical modulation system in the treatment of chronic painful leg ulcers. Arch Dermatol Res. 2008;300(7):377-83.

26. Blum K, DiNubile NA, Tekten T, et al. H-wave, a nonpharmacologic alternative for the treatment of patients with chronic soft tissue inflammation and neuropathic pain: a preliminary statistical outcome study. Adv Ther. 2006; 23(3):446-455.

Wound Bioburden: Providing Infection Control While Managing Pain
Volume 6, Issue 4
1. Martin LK. Wound microbiology and the use of antibacterial agents. In: Falabella AF, Kirsner RS, eds. Wound Healing. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group; 2005:83–101.

2. Gardner, SE, Frantz, RA, Doebbeling, BN. The validity of the clinical signs and symptoms used to identify localized chronic wound infection. Wound Rep Reg. 2001; 9:178–186.

3. Selkorn FJ, Cherry GW, Wilson JM, Hughes MA. et al. Evaluation of hypochlorous acid washes in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers. Journal of Wound Care. 2006;15(1).

4. Wang L, Bassiri M, Najafi R, et al. Hypochlorous acid as a potential wound care agent. Stabilized hypochlorous acid: a component of the inorganic armamentarium of innate immunity. J Burn Wounds. 2007.

5. Buchtala V. The present state of ultrasonic therapy. Br J Phys Med. 1952;15:3-6.

6. Speed CA. Therapeutic ultrasound in soft tissue lesions. Rheumatology. 2001; 40(12):1331-6.

7. Altland OD, Dalecki D, Suchkova VN, Francis CW. Low-intensity ultrasound increases endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide synthesis. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:637-43.

8. Suchkova VN, Baggs RB, Sahni SK, Francis CW. Ultrasound improves tissue perfusion in ischemic tissue through a nitric oxide dependent mechanism. Thromb Haemost. 2002; 88:865-70.

9. Ballard K, Charles H. Ultrasound therapy. Nursing Times. 2001; 97(24):58-9.

10. Speed CA. Therapeutic ultrasound in soft tissue lesions. Rheumatology. 2001; 40(12):1331-6.

11. Schoenbach SF, Song IC. Ultrasonic debridement: a new approach in the treatment of burn wounds. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1980;66:34-7.

12. Scherba G, Weigel RM, O’Brien WD Jr. Quantitative assessment of the germicidal efficacy of ultrasonic energy. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991;57:2079-84.

13. Dyson M. Non-thermal cellular effects of ultrasound. Br J Cancer. 1982;45(Suppl V):165-71.

14. Dyson M. Therapeutic applications of ultrasound. In: Nyborg WL, Ziskin MC, eds. Biological Effects of Ultrasound. Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1985:121-33.

15. Harvey W, Dyson M, Pond JB, Grahame R. The stimulation of protein synthesis in human fibroblasts by therapeutic ultrasound. Rheumatol Rehabil. 1975;14:237-41.

16. Webster DF, Pond JB, Dyson M, Harvey W. The role of cavitation in the in vitro stimulation of protein synthesis in human fibroblasts by ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1978;4:343-51.

17. Fyfe MC, Chahl LA. Mast cell degranulation: a possible mechanism of action of therapeutic ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol. 1982;8(Suppl 1):62-5.

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21. Speed CA. Therapeutic ultrasound in soft tissue lesions. Rheumatology. 2001; 40(12):1331-1336.

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27. Fabbi M, et. al. Clinical effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of noncontact low-frequency ultrasound on diabetic foot ulcers. DLS. 2011.

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Additional Resources
Stanisic M, Provo B, Larson D, Kloth L. Wound debridement with 25 kHz ultrasound. Advances in Skin and Wound Care. 2005; 18:9, 484-490.

Breuing KH, Bayer L, Neuwalder J, Arch M, Orgill DP. Early experience using low frequency ultrasound in chronic wounds. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;55:183-7.

Ennis WJ, Foremann P, Mozen N, Massey J, Conner-Kerr T, Meneses P. Ultrasound therapy for recalcitrant diabetic foot ulcers: results of a randomized, double-blind, controlled, multi-center study. MIST Ultrasound Diabetic Study Group. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2005;51(8):24-39.

Sibbald GR, Williamson D, Orsted HL, et al. Preparing the wound bed – debridement, bacterial balance and moisture balance. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2000; 46: 14-35.

Decreasing Pain and Improving Quality of Life: Clinical Strategies for Chronic Wound Patients
Volume 6, Issue 4

1. Upton D, Solowiej K, Hender C, Woo KY. Stress and Pain Associated With Dressing Change in Patients With Chronic Wounds. February, 2012.

2. Krasner D. Carrying on despite the pain: living with painful venous ulcers. a Heideggerian hermeneutic analysis [dissertation]. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI; 1997.

3. Woo KY. Meeting the challenges of wound-associated pain: anticipatory pain, anxiety, stress, and wound healing. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2008;54(9):10–12.

4. Woo K, Sibbald G, Fogh K, et al. Assessment and management of persistent (chronic) and total wound pain. Int Wound J. 2008;5(2):205–215.

5. Flaherty E. The views of patients living with healed venous leg ulcers. Nurs Stand. 2005;19(45):78,80,82–83.

6. Szor JK, Bourguignon C. Description of pressure ulcer pain at rest and at dressing change. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1999;26(3):115–120.

7. Nemeth KA, Harrison MB, Graham ID, Burke S. Understanding venous leg ulcer pain: results of a longitudinal study. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2004;50(1):34–36.

8. Pieper B, Szczepaniak K, Templin T. Psychosocial adjustment, coping, and quality of life in persons with venous ulcers and a history of intravenous drug use. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2000;27(4):227–237.

9. Evans AR, Pinzur MS. Health-related quality of life of patients with diabetes and foot ulcers. Foot Ankle Int. 2005;26(1):32–37.

10. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Marucha PT, Malarkey WB, Mercado AM, Glaser R. Slowing of wound healing by psychological stress. Lancet. 1995;346(8984):1194–1196.

11. Woo KY, Sibbald RG. The improvement of wound-associated pain and healing trajectory with a comprehensive foot and leg ulcer care model. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009;36(2):184–191.

12. Krasner D. The chronic wound pain experience: a conceptual model. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1995;41(3):20–25.

13. Woo KY, Sibbald RG. Chronic wound pain: a conceptual model. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2008;21(4):175–190.

14. Bruce AJ, Bennett DD, Lohse CM, Rooke TW, Davis MD. Lipodermatosclerosis: review of cases evaluated at Mayo Clinic. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46(2):187–192.

15. Aquino R, Johnnides C, Makaroun M, et al. Natural history of claudication: long-term serial follow-up study of 1244 claudicants. J Vasc Surg. 2001;34(6):962–970.

16. Grey JE, Harding KG, Enoch S. Venous and arterial leg ulcers. BMJ. 2006;332(7537):347–350.

17. Cutting KF, White RJ. Criteria for identifying wound infection--revisited. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2005;51(1):28–34.

18. Moore Z, Cowman S. Effective wound management: identifying criteria for infection. Nurs Stand. 2007;21(24):68,70,72.

19. Gardner SE, Frantz RA, Doebbeling BN. The validity of the clinical signs and symptoms used to identify localized chronic wound infection. Wound Repair Regen. 2001;9(3):178–186.

20. Jovey RD, ed. Managing Pain: The Canadian Healthcare Professional’s Reference. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Healthcare & Financial Publishing, Rogers Media; 2002.

21. Ji RR, Woolf CJ. Neuronal plasticity and signal transduction in nociceptive neurons: implications for the initiation and maintenance of pathological pain. Neurobiol Dis.

22. Woo KY, Coutts PM, Price P, Harding K, Sibbald RG. A randomized crossover investigation of pain at dressing change comparing 2 foam dressings. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2009;22(7):304–310.

23. Sibbald RG, Goodman L, Woo KY, et al. Special considerations in wound bed preparation 2011: an update©. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2011;24(9):415–436.

24. Ubbink DT, Vermeulen H, Goossens A, Kelner RB, Schreuder SM, Lubbers MJ. Occlusive vs gauze dressings for local wound care in surgical patients: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Surg. 2008;143(10):950–955.

25. Thomas S. Atraumatic Dressings. Available at: Accessed February 7, 2008.

26. Woo KY. Wound Related Pain and Attachment in the Older Adults. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2011.

27. Briggs M, Closs SJ. Patients’ perceptions of the impact of treatments and products on their experience of leg ulcer pain. J Wound Care. 2006;15(8):333–337.

28. Melzack R. From the gate to the neuromatrix. Pain. 1999;Suppl 6:S121–S126.

29. Colloca L, Benedetti F. Nocebo hyperalgesia: how anxiety is turned into pain. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2007;20(5):435–439.

30. Tracey I. Neuroimaging of pain mechanisms. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2007;1(2):109–116.


32. RNAO. Assessment of pain: questions to consider during assessment of pain (PQRST). Available at: Accessed December 28, 2011.

33. Herr K, Coyne PJ, McCaffery M, Manworren R, Merkel S. Pain assessment in the patient unable to self-report: position statement with clinical practice recommendations. Pain Manage Nurs. 2011;12(4):230–250.

34. City of Hope Pain & Palliative Care Resource Center. Pain and symptom management. Available at: Accessed December 28, 2011.

35. Arnstein P. Assessment of Nociceptive Versus Neuropathic Pain in Older Adults. Available at: Accessed December 28, 2011.

36. World Health Organization. WHO’s Pain Ladder. Available at: Accessed December 28, 2011.

37. The AGS Foundation for Health in Aging. Medications for Persistent Pain. An Older Adult’s Guide to Safe Use of Pain Medications. Available at: Accessed December 28, 2011.

38. Romanelli M, Dini V, Polignano R, Bonadeo P, Maggio G. Ibuprofen slow-release foam dressing reduces wound pain in painful exuding wounds: preliminary findings from an international real-life study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2009;20(1):19–26.

39. Briggs M, Nelson EA. Topical agents or dressings for pain in venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(4):CD001177.

40. Woo KY, Harding K, Price P, Sibbald G. Minimising wound-related pain at dressing change: evidence-informed practice. Int Wound J. 2008;5(2):144–157.

41. Woo KY, Sibbald RG. The ABCs of skin care for wound care clinicians: dermatitis and eczema. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2009;22(5):230–238.

42. Gibson MC, Keast D, Woodbury MG, et al. Educational intervention in the management of acute procedure-related wound pain: a pilot study. J Wound Care. 2004;13(5):187–190.

Patient Portals: Opening a New Door to Patient-Clinician Communication
Volume 6, Issue 2

1. Feely TW, Shine KI. Access to the medical record for patients and involved providers: transparency through electronic tools. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155:853-854.

2. Walker J, Leveille SG, Vodicka E, Darer JD, Dhanireddy S, Elmore JG, Feldman HJ, et al. Inviting patients to read the doctors’ notes: patients and doctors look ahead. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155:811-819.